# Time02112

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1. ## The omega man, something they didn't teach you in math school!

RE: The omega man, something they didn't teach you in math school! Sliced-up pi 25 Nov 00 Colin Percival, a 19-year-old mathematics student at Simon Fraser University in British Columbia, has set a new record by working out the quadrillionth binary digit of (pi), the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter. Percival used a formula that expresses as an infinite sum, and combined the results from 1734 computers in more than 50 countries linked via the Internet. "By splitting the sum into sub-ranges-first million terms, next million terms, and so on-it was easy to split the calculation between machines," he explains. From New Scientist magazine, vol 168 issue 2266, 25/11/2000, page 11

3. ## Darkmatter

Black whole 13 Jan 01 Someone has cleverly weighed the Universe at last (16 December 2000, p 26). Last time I tried, I couldn't get it to stay on the weighbridge. It just kept floating away. I take it that what you really meant was that someone has determined its mass. Recently, I estimated the mass. I was out by a factor of 2. Sorry about that. Using the latest determination, if we were to squeeze all of that mass into a black hole, the Schwarzschild radius of the hole (the distance from its centre to its effective edge) would be about 15.6 billion light years. The latest thinking puts the age of the Universe at about 15 billion years. Not long ago, therefore-and possibly still-the Universe was inside a black hole. The matter inside a black hole collapses to a singularity. The Universe is supposed to have been expanding ever since the big bang. Will someone please explain this flat contradiction? Due to an editing error, we did indeed say "weight" on page 29, when of course we meant "mass". The person responsible has been taken out and shot-Ed P. Warlow From New Scientist magazine, vol 169 issue 2273, 13/01/2001, page 55
4. ## How long is now

There's no such time as the present 13 Jan 01 THE perception of "now" varies from person to person, researchers in Britain have found. Jim Stone and his colleagues at the University of Sheffield looked at differences in the time it takes for audio and visual stimuli to reach people's consciousness. They showed volunteers a red light and played a tone, with anything up to a quarter of a second between the two. Sometimes the light came first, sometimes the sound and sometimes they occurred simultaneously. The test was repeated 1000 times for each of the 17 volunteers, who were asked to say whether the light and the sound happened at exactly the same time. Stone was surprised to find that some people reported the events as simultaneous when the light preceded the sound by up to 150 milliseconds. Others did so when the sound came before the light. To find out if people take into account the time it takes sounds to travel to them from distant sources, Stone repeated the experiment with the sound coming from about 4 metres away, taking an extra 11 milliseconds to reach the volunteers. None of them took the extra distance into account when reporting simultaneous events, Stone found. But he was astonished by how consistent each individual's judgements remained-exactly 11 milliseconds off their original judgements. It doesn't seem to matter if different people have different ideas about whether events are simultaneous, Stone concludes-but personal consistency is vital. "It should be rock-solid stable," he says, "otherwise you wouldn't be able to play ping-pong." Alison Motluk From New Scientist magazine, vol 169 issue 2273, 13/01/2001, page 17 Further reading: More at: Proceedings of the Royal Society B (vol 268, p 31)
5. ## Tricks of the light ?

Does the key to quantum computing lie in freezing a light beam? A PULSE of light can be stopped dead, and then sent on its way again at the flick of a switch, say two American research teams. Their achievement takes us a step closer to quantum computers, because it provides a way to pluck quantum information from a beam of light without having to keep individual atoms in a fragile quantum state. Light travels through empty space at 300,000 kilometres per second, or somewhat slower in a dense medium such as glass or water. In 1999, Lene Hau of Harvard University stunned physicists by slowing light to a few metres per second (New Scientist, 20 February 1999, p 10). Now Hau has gone one step further and brought light to a complete standstill in a specially prepared gas of cold sodium atoms. At the same time, a team at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics has reported achieving similar results in a hot gas of rubidium atoms. According to Ron Walsworth of the Harvard-Smithsonian team, similar techniques could play a key role in future super-fast quantum computers. Such machines will need to transfer quantum information from light beams to atoms for processing. Previous attempts to do this have used light to push individual atoms into an excited state. But these states are so delicate they are liable to be destroyed by background noise. In the latest experiments, when the light stops, the information in its electromagnetic fields is stored in the arrangement of many gas atoms. "We have over 1012 atoms, which makes the state very robust," says David Phillips of the Harvard-Smithsonian team. This means the information can be retrieved with 100 per cent efficiency. The key to stopping light is to nudge the gas atoms into a "dark state" in which their electrons are unable to jump up to higher energy levels. This means that the atoms cannot absorb light, so when the researchers shine a pulse of light into the gas it interacts with the "spin" of the gas nuclei instead. This is what slows the pulse down. Both groups used a second carefully tuned laser beam, known as the coupling beam, to create a gas in a dark state. The light pulse's speed depends on the intensity of the coupling beam. The dimmer the beam, the slower the pulse travels, and switching off the coupling beam brings the light to a complete stop. The researchers found that they could set the trapped light pulse moving again by restoring the coupling beam. The tricky part is switching off the coupling beam without destroying the dark state, says Mikhail Lukin of Harvard-Smithsonian, who led the theoretical work which inspired both experiments. But Hau says her team found that "you can slam it on and off." Either way, "everybody thought it was pretty wild," says Seth Lloyd, a quantum computing engineer from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who attended the Physics of Quantum Electronics conference in Utah last week where Lukin presented his experimental results. Engineers like Lloyd would prefer to be able to make their quantum computers out of a solid, rather than a gas. Phil Hemmer of the Air Force Research Laboratory at Hanscom in Massachusetts may have the answer. He has slowed light in a crystal of yttrium silicate, and is about to try stopping it completely using the new technique. "Now they've shown it's possible, the next step is to show it's practical," he says. Their success isn't guaranteed. In a solid, some atoms won't settle into a dark state and could absorb the pulse. Hemmer plans to use a third laser beam to dump the uncooperative atoms out of the way into a different energy level. Eugenie Samuel From New Scientist magazine, vol 169 issue 2275, 27/01/2001, page 4 Further reading: More at: Nature (vol 409, p490), Physical Review Letters (vol 86, p783)
6. ## Tricks of the light ?

Dangerous reflections 10 Feb 01 Space mirrors that reflect sunlight back to Earth, such as Russia's Znamya satellite, could blind skywatchers on the ground, say Canadian astronomers. James Laframboise of York University and Ralph Chou of the University of Waterloo calculated that Znamya would appear as bright as the Sun to someone near the centre of the beam. If they were gazing through a telescope or binoculars at the time there would be "a serious risk of eye damage", the researchers say in the Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada (vol 94, p 237). From New Scientist magazine, vol 169 issue 2277, 10/02/2001, page 19
7. ## Rivers in Time. this man thinks it's all over for us!

Rivers in Time. this man thinks it's all over for us! He Thinks it's All Over 17 Feb 01 Rivers in Time by Peter Ward, Columbia University Press, \$29.95, ISBN 0231118627 IS THE Earth going through a mass-extinction event? Peter Ward from the University of Washington thinks so, and sets out to make sense of the present by unravelling the past. In Rivers in Time, Ward looks back at three mass extinctions that have shaken the living world, before trying to make sense of a possible modern extinction event. Catastrophism is in vogue again. Although the blurb on the back cover carefully conceals the fact, Ward plays a straight bat in the preface when he admits that the book is really an updated edition of his 1992 publication The End of Evolution. He then gets on with the admirable job of conveying the geological evidence for mass extinctions, clearly and concisely. Ward's writing style is mostly easy to read: I felt as though I was taking part in a conversation, rather than listening to a lecture. But I was disappointed by the scanty, bullet-pointed list of thoughts with which he ends the book, in which he looks at what may be in store for us in the near future. Ward's contentious message appears to be one of complacency. No matter what happens to the rest of the animal kingdom, he says, we human beings are "at the pinnacle of biodiversity" and therefore "extinction-proof". Stuart Clark is director of public astronomy education at the University of Hertfordshire From New Scientist magazine, vol 169 issue 2278, 17/02/2001, page 53

10. ## What's the big rush?

What's the big rush? What's the big rush? 07 Apr 01 Light from the oldest supernova ever seen suggests the Universe is expanding faster and faster THE most distant supernova ever observed appears to have blown its top when the expansion of the Universe was slowing down. Ironically, this observation boosts the idea that the Universe is filled with "dark energy" that stretches space and is now making it expand faster. Adam Riess of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore and Peter Nugent of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California spotted the explosion in Hubble Space Telescope data. Because the Universe is expanding, distant stars and galaxies recede from Earth and their light is stretched out, pushing it towards the red end of the spectrum. Hence, assuming the Universe expands predictably, you can judge how far away a star is by the size of its red shift. Two years ago, two teams of astronomers reported that distant stellar explosions known as type Ia supernovae, which always have the same brightness, appeared about 25 per cent dimmer from Earth than expected from their red shifts. That implied that the expansion of the Universe has accelerated. This is because the supernovae were farther away than they ought to have been if the Universe had been expanding at a steady rate for the billions of years since the stars exploded. But some researchers have argued that other phenomena might dim distant supernovae. Intergalactic dust might soak up their light, or type Ia supernovae from billions of years ago might not conform to the same standard brightness they do today. This week's supernova finding seems to have dealt a severe blow to these arguments against an accelerating Universe. The new supernova's red shift implies it is 11 billion light years away, but it is roughly twice as bright as it should be. Hence it must be significantly closer than it would be had the Universe expanded steadily. Neither dust nor changes in supernova brightness can easily explain the brightness of the explosion. Dark energy can, however. When the Universe was only a few billion years old, galaxies were closer together and the pull of their gravity was strong enough to overcome the push of dark energy and slow the expansion. A supernova that exploded during this period would thus be closer than its red shift suggests. Only after the galaxies grew farther apart did dark energy take over and make the Universe expand faster. So astronomers should see acceleration change to deceleration as they look farther back in time. "This transition from accelerating to decelerating is really the smoking gun for some sort of dark energy," Riess says. More data is needed to clinch the case, says Ira Wasserman of Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. "I'd be a little reluctant to put too much faith in one supernova," he says. But the lone observation is enough to rule out other ideas, says Michael Turner of the University of Chicago: "This supernova has driven a stake through the heart of more conventional explanations that try to avoid cosmic speed-up." Adrian Cho From New Scientist magazine, vol 170 issue 2285, 07/04/2001, page 6

12. ## Darkmatter

Seeing the dark side 21 Apr 01 ASTRONOMERS in the US have mapped a cluster of invisible galaxies for the first time. They spotted the cluster by analysing the effect its gravity had on the light from more distant galaxies. The discovery opens a new window on the Universe, because a large part of its mass may be "dark matter". Last year, a team of European astronomers caught a glimpse of a dark galaxy as it distorted light from the more distant bright ones they were imaging. But astronomers have never been able to confirm such sightings or work out what the galaxies were like. "It was a true mass detection but difficult to confirm," admits Peter Schneider of the University of Bonn, a member of the team. Now Tony Tyson, David Wittman and colleagues at Lucent Technologies' Bell Labs in New Jersey have made a similar discovery, which they later confirmed by picking up very faint light from the cluster. They looked at 31,000 distant galaxies within a square patch of sky half a degree across using the Blanco 4-metre telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. They then entered data on the apparent shapes of the galaxies into a computer and combined them to produce an average shape. They reasoned that because most galaxies are elliptical, the average of many galaxies with different orientations should be circular. In fact the average was an ellipse, indicating that dark matter in front of the galaxies was distorting the images. Analysing what sort of bodies would produce such distortion, the team was able to construct a three-dimensional map of the positions of 26 dark galaxies in a cluster. Because the Universe is expanding, light from distant objects gets stretched, shifting it to redder wavelengths. By comparing the "red shifts"-which are proportional to distance-of the background galaxies to the amount the dark cluster distorts their light, Wittman says he was able to estimate the distance to the dark cluster. At the moment his claim is controversial. "I don't think you can get the red shift using <such> data," says Schneider. But if the team is right, astronomers may soon be able to produce 3D maps of truly dark galaxies that cannot be seen any other way. Tyson believes the only way to test current theories about dark matter is to study such galaxies. "Astronomers need no longer be biased towards what glows in the dark," he says. Eugenie Samuel From New Scientist magazine, vol 170 issue 2287, 21/04/2001, page 11 Further reading: More at:] http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/astro-ph?0104094
13. ## Is anyone here trying to build a time machine?

rebelboy, I recommend that you begin with NT, Network Technology programs, as they're the jobs of the future, and if anyone hasn't guessed by now, most jobs today will eventually require most of their employees to enroll in some form of these associated programs, just to keep their exhisting jobs. (so there's one for starters.) Also, it wouldn't hurt to take up reading on physics, particle physics is a much needed basis to understand the basic fudamentals that make up existing forms that contain mass, and their relationship to energy. of course this is perhaps an understatement, but it is as brief as I could describe it. *Electronics courses are also a key element if you wish to develop prototype designs of your own, it would be a big help, to enhance your endevours.
14. ## Who's the older in here?

RE: Who's the older in here? were you talkin' bot me dob? ya that's right, i have posted much here, and been here for a very long "Time" as well.
15. ## Message From The Future?

"I WANT A PONY!"...The "Tail" Of Two Brothers. (One brother being a "Pessamist" and the other being an "Optimist") One day the pessamist brother said to the optimist brother, "Hey, come look inside the barn dear brother, I have something to show you." The optimistic brother said " O.K." and proceeded to follow his pessamistic brother inside of the barn, and as he looked inside, he happened to notice all kinds of "Horse Manure" littered all over the place, and said, HMmm? "There must be a PONY in here somwhere?"
16. ## Message From The Future?

From: "Roan Carratu" ([email protected]) To: "Art Bell" ([email protected]) Subject: Strange Email Date: Sat, 19 May 2001 03:52:55 -0600 X-Mailer: Microsoft Outlook Express 5.50.4522.1200 I received this as an email with no sender address. I thought I had better send it to you. Interestingly, the message had these words at the top of it, just as you see them. Dear Art Bell, This message will get to you on Saturday, May 19, 2001. We send it from the date, your calendar, January 2, 6451. To send this, the energy released from the dissolution of a galactic black hole caused a micro-puncture in time sidescales for nineteen milliseconds. Eleven thousand sixteen uninhabited star systems vaporized in order to send this message. We are inducing a packet distortion in the email band of your internet to send this message in that media. We send this message exactly as our history shows it was sent, in the words recorded in your time. The events between the year 2001 and 2005 determine the future of the whole planet and the Human species component of the biosphere. Analysis of that time in history shows the beginning development of Human awareness of it's niche in the ecology of First Planet. The result transforms the Human species from a rogue species into the planetary nervous system it has become on all the planets it has terraformed since then. This period, between 2001 and 2005, is the most important period of all Human history. All previous moments of time pivot the moments beyond that time. The results create the multitudes of side scales of time, each time scale proceeding from a different moment in the total actions of every component of the biosphere on that world. All the two hundred trillion side scales from that period in history, between 2001 and 2005, your calendar, show no life surviving on First Planet, with no expansion to the thousands of solar systems now occupied in our single primary side scale. Therefore, only our primary scale of time can send this message back, and this message is pivot for our primary time scale's existence. And therefore, the words in this message are necessary for the survival of the Ecology of First Planet and it's Human component, during that crucial time. This reason alone motivated the Humans now to create this message to send it into our ancient past, to your time. The words needed for survival are: Humanity is Universe being aware of itself, and specifically, the ecology of First Planet being aware of itself. Most of the conceptuality common to Human society has no survival value. Almost everything Human's think and do have a destructive result in the future of First Planet. Whole systems of thought, commonly effecting Human behavior in your period of history, exist as commonly held delusions and do not reflect Human relationship with itself or the planetary ecology. Some of these are: Politics, Government, Economics, Formal Organized Education, and Military. Most concepts of individuality do not reflect the reality of interdependence, and causes a blindness to the value of other human beings and the ecology. Since Humanity exists as a primary component of an ecology, originating within it, surviving through it, learning everything from it, and flourishing only in a healthy environment, the change in consciousness dissolving the previously mentioned conceptual delusions creates the actions which allows our single time scale to come into existence. Please allow us to exist. You would like it. There is no war, no hunger, no ignorance, no disease or death, and maximum individual freedom possible. It is not a Utopia, but certainly our problems do not threaten existence or a viable future. The oldest known Human is two thousand fifty six First Planet years old, and climbs the highest mountain on Second Planet every year. You called it Mars. She headed the task group which dismantled the abandoned orbital city around First Planet six hundred years ago. Her remotest known direct ancestor came from an area of the African sub-continent known as the Gold Coast, from a mud hut village rebuilt and modernized by the Planetary Effort in 2017. Between 2027 through 2104 in multitudes of other side scales, Mass Extinction Events eliminate the biosphere, some from asteroids, some from diseases, and most from the nuclear, biological, and chemical result of social dissolution on the planetary ecology. In our ancient history, carefully retained through electronic records, an Asteroid in 2030 is diverted by a mass effort of the Human component of First Planet, and our primary scale proceeds from that time. But the seeds of that mass effort comes from the period 2001 through 2005, and this message read on the Art Bell show to a mass population, according to our historical records. We realize we exist as a result of a temporal paradox. But if it takes the destruction of a galaxy and a temporal paradox to create what we have now, we consider the result worth it.
17. ## Time

"Time on our side" From:] New Scientist Magazine Website... http://www.newscientist.com/ns/19991030/letters7.html Julian Barbour isn't the only one who thinks time is an illusion (16 October, p 29). He has distinguished predecessors. (Julian Barbour is an independent theoretical physicist who lives near Oxford.) BOOK:] Julian Barbour's The End of Time is published by Weidenfeld & Nicolson. "Time" Our minisite produced in collaboration with the National Physical Laboratory, the UK's National Standards Laboratory. Website:] http://www.newscientist.com/nsplus/insight/time/time.html Parmenides (540 BC) said: "The true world is one of permanence. Change is also an illusion." Plato said: "Time is a mental impression to which nothing in the real world corresponds." Einstein said: "For us physicists the distinction between past, present and future signifies only an obstinate illusion." The above were supplied to me a few years ago--after a discussion in which I proposed that time was illusory--by Peter Landsberg of the University of Southampton maths department, who wrote The Enigma of Time (Adam Hilger, 1982). As we seem to be having difficulty understanding this concept more than 2500 years after it was first noted, I decided to study photonic crystals instead. GREG PARKER University of Southampton I am fascinated to learn from Barbour's article that we may "soon" be able to prove the non-existence of time. It would be good to know roughly "when" this might happen, so I can work as much overtime as possible while the concept is still valid. P&ARING;L VIDAR NYDAHL [email protected] next letter From New Scientist, 30 October 1999 Additional Sources... The Quantum Inquisition °°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°° http://www.newscientist.com/ns/19991030/thequantum.html Entangled photons could provide deep insights into our world that nobody, not even physicists, expected. Michael Brooks spoke to the chief inquisitor AFTER BATTLING THE STRANGENESS of time and space... TIME The Serpent in the Garden of Sentience... http://members.aol.com/chaque/time/time.htm (More to come latter.)...... ---"12"
18. ## A different theory

Mabey some of those magicians that claimed to "walk through walls" was no majic at all? and the cloak around them was to keep everyone from seeing what was really going on as the magician passed through, not because it was necessarily a "trick" per say, but more importantly since a magicians oath of secrecy is to never reveal their secret, perhaps this was in fact a means to conceal to the public that the magician was for real, molecularly altering matter ino energy on a level that permitted matter to pass through matter, as the body actually "passed through" the wall! Perhaps this was the biggest secret of all? we all know that there are many facets of social indifference towards one another as it is, can you imagine how these magicians would have been treted if they demonstrated a "TRUE" Active Power like this??? I know that if it was me performing this in front of live audience & on live television, and during the moment my bdy was beginning to "pass through" the wall, all of a sudden the cape, or blanket covering fell away, revealing to everyone's disbelieving eyes as my body was passing through this wall, I would be running away in fear of my life & what the spooks may do to me if I were caught! Becomming a lab rat & all, and yes that does happen! all the more reason for secrecy. Why do you think in the potrayal of Marvel Comic Superhero's & such, they always had to conceal their identity? Exactly the same reason for so much secrecy in Real Life!!!
19. ## Is bread faster then water? ;)

What about incorporating nanotechnology, to encode peptide particles, and "piggy-backing" them onto FTL migratory QED particle waves? BTW, "Darkmatter" is also part of the electromagnetic spectrum of "Pillars" which are left over fuel from the Big Bang. Don't bother to ask me how I know all this, because I would have to write a book first, then shoot you latter... (Ha!)
20. ## What is time?

Hey corran, didn't the "Moody Blues" write something about that in their lyrics?
21. ## Is anyone here trying to build a time machine?

Thank You Sivertempest, I was just curious, yet curiouser still, I would like to know what type of materiels you are using to construct your device with, if you feel uncomfortable with discussing the details here, you can email me in private if you don't mind telling me more... [email protected] (Fully encrypted email, you might consider getting one for yourself at "Hushmail" .com)
22. ## The Time~Travel Series from Bill Hamilton...

Is it possible to travel through time? Is it possible to jump, shift, or displace objects or people from a position on our current timeline to some position in the past or future? Many of us have either read science fiction stories on time travel or have seen movies depicting travel through time. We have also read of the paradoxes associated with traveling backward in time and altering events that would produce paradoxical consequences. Our biological clocks tick just as the clock on the wall and everything seems to move forward in some inexorable dance and we can't seem to reverse it, step out of it, or jump over it. We are in our own body time machines: Our hearts beat, our lungs breath, and our bodies sync with numerous circadian rhythms. We seem trapped in time, unable to move freely through a dimension that enslaves us unlike the dimensions of space that we move so freely through. What are the possibilities of moving through time at a faster rate than time? It doesn't seem very hopeful. Most would dismiss such a notion as impossible. Here is how one person describes the physical process... Goto:] http://home.earthlink.net/~skywatcher22/TimeTravel.html
23. ## Dont believe

actually in referrence to the molecular suggestions, we would be examining potential methods to break down the molecular components of the body, and reasemble it into the buble via a means of quantum injections that are sent in packets vey much like the data that is being transmitted to deliver this message over the internet. This quantum bubble, would be shielded to withstand any outside influences from interacting with the contents (the traveller) and be connected by a series of broadband quantum Time~Streams which contain all the information connected to the orginating world-Line from whence it departed, as to ensure zero divergence, thus enabling the traveller to return to their original worldline from any given point in Time of their coordinated destination. (CCS-Q-S) = "Closed Curcuit,-Quantum-Time Stream"
24. ## Light: Partical & Wave

(LoL) Can bread travel faster than the speed of water?
25. ## Physicists Announce Possible Violation Of Standard Model Of Particle Physics!

A Crack In The Theory Of Everything? Physicists Announce Possible Violation Of Standard Model Of Particle Physics... http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/bnlpr020801.htm UPTON, NY -- Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, in collaboration with researchers from 11 institutions in the U.S., Russia, Japan, and Germany, today announced an experimental result that directly confronts the so-called Standard Model of particle physics. "This work could open up a whole new world of exploration for physicists interested in new theories, such as supersymmetry, which extend the Standard Model," says Boston University physicist Lee Roberts, co-spokesperson for the experiment. The Standard Model is an overall theory of particle physics that has withstood rigorous experimental challenge for 30 years. The Brookhaven finding -- a precision measurement of something called the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, a type of subatomic particle -- deviates from the value predicted by the Standard Model. This indicates that other physical theories that go beyond the assumptions of the Standard Model may now be open to experimental exploration. The results were reported today at a special colloquium at Brookhaven Lab and have been submitted to Physical Review Letters. Scientists at Brookhaven, doing research at an experiment dubbed the muon g-2 (pronounced gee-minus-two), have been collecting data since 1997. Until late last week, they did not know whether their work would confirm the prediction of the Standard Model. "We are now 99 percent sure that the present Standard Model calculations cannot describe our data," says Brookhaven physicist Gerry Bunce, project manager for the experiment. The Standard Model, in development since the 1960s, explains and gives order to the menagerie of subatomic particles discovered throughout the 1940s and 1950s at particle accelerators of ever-increasing power at Brookhaven and other locations in the United States and Europe. The theory encompasses three of the four forces known to exist in the universe -- the strong force, the electromagnetic force, and the weak force -- but not the fourth force, gravity. The g-2 values for electrons and muons are among the most precisely known quantities in physics -- and have been in good agreement with the Standard Model. The g-2 value measures the effects of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces on a characteristic of these particles known as "spin" -- somewhat similar to the spin of a toy top. Using Standard Model principles, theorists have calculated with great precision how the spin of a muon, a particle similar to but heavier than the electron, would be affected as it moves through a magnetic field. Previous experimental measurements of this g-2 value agreed with the theorists' calculations, and this has been a major success of the Standard Model. The scientists and engineers at Brookhaven, however -- using a very intense source of muons, the world's largest superconducting magnet, and very precise and sensitive detectors -- have measured g-2 to a much higher level of precision. The new result is numerically greater than the prediction. "There appears to be a significant difference between our experimental value and the theoretical value from the Standard Model," says Yale physicist Vernon Hughes, who initiated the new measurement and is co-spokesperson for the experiment. "There are three possibilities for the interpretation of this result," he says. "Firstly, new physics beyond the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry, is being seen. Secondly, there is a small statistical probability that the experimental and theoretical values are consistent. Thirdly, although unlikely, the history of science in general has taught us that there is always the possibility of mistakes in experiments and theories." "Many people believe that the discovery of supersymmetry <a theory that predicts the existence of companion particles for all the known particles> may be just around the corner," Roberts says. "We may have opened the first tiny window to that world." All the physicists agree that further study is needed. And they still have a year's worth of data to analyze. "When we analyze the data from the experiment's year 2000 run, we'll reduce the level of error by a factor of 2," says physicist William Morse, Brookhaven resident spokesperson for g-2. The team expects that analysis to come within the next year. Furthermore, Hughes adds, substantial additional data that have not yet been used in evaluating the theoretical value of g-2 are now available from accelerators in Russia, China, and at Cornell University. These data could reduce significantly the error in the theoretical value. This research was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. National Science Foundation, the German Bundesminister fur Bildung und Forschung, and the Russian Ministry of Science, and through the U.S.-Japan Agreement in High Energy Physics. The U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory creates and operates major facilities available to university, industrial and government personnel for basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical and environmental sciences and in selected energy technologies. The Laboratory is operated by Brookhaven Science Associates, a not-for-profit research management company, under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy. D.O.E. they say? Hmmm??? arent they the same ones responsible for NOT pouring any fundining for Development of more efficient energy resouces? we've HAD the Technology for years! so the question still remains...Why have they not "DEVELOPED" any of this stuff? now that we are facing rolling blackouts, and the fact that GOV. G"Grey" Davis & Co. has finally stepped forward announcing criminal allegations are sufficient to press charges? Ya Right, that'll be the day! these energy cartels will do whatever the HELL they wish!n untill "We the Sheeple" do something to put a stop to this nonesense, once & FOR all! and to the D.O.E.... Get off your asses & do something right for a change... D E V E L O P ! and Develop something that is truly beneficial, and don't rely on fosil fuels! Please Get it right this "Time"
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